REASONS OF WHY SOMALILAND BECOMING THE 56TH STATE OF AFRICA IN 2024
1. SOMALILAND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Somaliland was a British Protectorate for 76 years (1884-1960). Somaliland became independent and recognized country before Somalia. Somaliland achieved independence separately from Great Britain on June 26, 1960 while Somalia achieved independence from Italy on July 1, 1960. Somaliland immediately received International Recognition before Somalia from 35 countries that included China, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Israel, Libya, the Soviet Union etc. Somaliland achieved independence and recognition before Somalia, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Chad, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Benin, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Kenya, Algeria, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Namibia etc.
2. SOMALILAND REPUBLIC LOCATION
Somaliland is located in the Horn of Africa. It lies between 08°00′ – 11°30′ parallel North of the Equator (Latitudes) and between 42°30′ – 49°00′ Meridian East of Greenwich (Longitudes). It is bordered by the Red Sea to the North (Southern Coast of Gulf of Aden), Djibouti to the West, Ethiopia to the South, and Somalia to the East. Somaliland has a coastline with the majority lying along the Gulf of Aden (Red Sea). The country is slightly larger than England, with an area of 176,000km² (110,000 sq. miles) and with a population around 5.8 million.
3. REASONS OF DISSOLVING 1960 UNION WITH SOMALIA
Sharing ethnicity, religion, language, culture, traditions, color etc do not determine the creation of union or federation or even preserve the existence or survivability of union or federation but only fair power-sharing and justice determine the success and survivability of union or federation and that is what Somalia failed to understand and respect during the 30 years of the failed union (1960-1990).
Even though Somaliland was the parent-country that invited Somalia for sharing union with Somaliland for achieving independence before Somalia, Somalia never respected the terms and conditions of the union but subjected Somaliland people to 22 years (1960-1982) of power-sharing denial, oppression and injustice and 8 years (1983-1990) of all kinds of human rights abuses and heinous crimes such as suppression, persecution, imprisonment, looting, genocide and destructions. Those two historical reasons ended the union between Somaliland and Somalia in May 1991 after devastating eight-year- long civil war (1983-1990) between Somaliland and Somalia. Somaliland people reclaimed their independence of June 26, 1960 again. One wonders why people of Somalia still pursue the revival of the disastrous union knowing power-sharing denial for 22 years and genocide and destruction for 8 years. Unions are dissolvable but independence is indissolvable. June 26, 1960 is indissolvable.
SOME VIDEOS OF GENOCIDE AND DESTRUCTION
VI. LETTER OF DEATH: http://www.longlivesomaliland.
4. AFRICAN ESTABLISHED TERRITORIAL BORDERS ARE BASED ON LAND, NOT ON CLAN LINEAGE
There are no clan or tribal borders in Africa but there are state or national territorial borders only. Borders of all African countries are based on land, not on clan lineage or tribal origin. The territory, people, independence and recognition of each African country is defined and based on colonial borders drawn by African colonilal powers. The political map of Africa showing African countries was made by Europe, not by Africans. Somaliland territory, people, independence and recognition is based on Somaliland British Protectorate Borders. The borders of Djibouti, Somaliland and Somalia have internationally the same legitimacy and status for being all colonially-drawn borders defining their people, independence, territory and recognition as the rest of Africa. European Colonial Borders define territory, people, independence, statehood and diplomatic recognition of each country in Africa, Asia, and Arab World.
In Africa, three conditions are usually required for continental and international diplomatic recognition of a country:
(A) Being separate colony
(B) Having separate, unique colonial borders.
(C) And having written proclamation of independence granted by Colonizing power
Somaliland Fulfilled All The Three Conditions : Somaliland was British Protectorate for 76 years. Somaliland has defined British Somaliland Protectorate Colonial Borders. And Somaliland was granted independence by Great Britain on June 26, 1960 [Shown below]
Somalia does not have the right to challenge or lobby against Somaliland independence and recognition because Somaliland is older country than Somalia in achieving independence and recognition in Africa in 1960. Somaliland was independent, sovereign, recognized nation while Somalia was still Italian colony. Somaliland achieved independence and recognition on June 26, 1960 from Great Britain while Somalia achieved independence on July 1, 1960 from Italy. Then the two shared disastrous union for 30 years (1960-1990) from which Somaliland withdrew in 1991 after devastating civil war.
After dissolving their unions, Senegal/Gambia, Egypt/Syria and Ethiopia/Eritrea each restored and retained its original independence and recognition at OAU and at UN that they had before sharing unions. The countries emerging from the former Soviet Union and Federal Yugoslavia have been all recognized by the United Nations. So, why not letting Somaliland Republic restore and retain its original independence and recognition of June 26, 1960 after dissolving the disastrous union (1960-1990) with Somalia and withdrawing from it on May 18, 1991?
OAU and UN both recognized South Sudan without having previous colonizing power and colonial borders separate from Sudan. South Sudan was integral part of Sudan which was British colony. So, why not recognizing Somaliland which was separate colony with different colonizing power from Somalia? Somaliland was British Protectorate while Somalia was Italian colony.
5. REFUTING MISINFORMATIONS OF SOMALIA AGAINST SOMALILAND RECOGNITION
1. FIRST MISINFORMATION: Somalia falsely claims that Somaliland was a province of Somalia to label it with secessionism or separatism to deny Somaliland of recognition while in fact Somaliland was separate colony from Somalia named Somaliland British protectorate for 76 years and became independent country in Africa before Somalia, achieving independence and recognition by 35 countries on June 26, 1960 when Somalia was still Italian colony achieving independence on July 1, 1960. The proclamation of Somaliland independence granted by the colonizing power (Great Britain) is shown below. How Somaliland, becoming independent and recognized country by the world on June 26, 1960 before Somalia, become a province of Somalia? Somaliland achieved independence before Somalia, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Chad, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Benin, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Kenya, Algeria, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Namibia etc. That argument of Somalia is baseless and fabrication.
2. SECOND MISINFORMATION: That the recognition of Somaliland will open Pandora’s Box in Africa to encourage secessionists or separatists to change African established colonial borders of the continent of Africa implying that Somaliland was secessionist province that broke away from Somalia. If Nyanza Province of Kenya or Arusha Region of Tanzania or Puntland province of Somalia secedes or breaks away from their own respective countries, they would definitely qualify to be secessionists, separatists or breakaways and that would change or shift the colonial borders of Africa inherited from European colonial powers thus creating instability and political unrest in the continent of Africa as those provinces share history, colonial borders, independence and recognition with their own motherlands.
But Somaliland was older country than Somalia in Africa in achieving independence before Somalia in 1960 as its proclamation of independence shows below. The independence and recognition of Somaliland would be based on British Somaliland protectorate colonial borders and will not influence secessionism or separatism in Africa but will enhance the African Conference of 1964 for reaffirming Africa colonial borders to keep the security, peace and stability of the continent. How the independence and recognition of Somaliland based on its legitimate colonial borders and becoming independent nation before Somalia would open Pandora’s Box for secessionists or separatists in Africa while the independence and recognition of all African countries are based on their colonial borders? This argument of Somalia is baseless too.
3. THIRD MISINFORMATION: Somalia claims that Somaliland accepted the terms of the union set by Somalia in 1960 that Somaliland could not withdraw from the failed union. There were no terms set between the two countries in 1960 at all. Somaliland (parent-country) initiated the unification between the two countries in 1960 then Somalia violated the conditions of fair power-sharing of the union by hijacking it for the 30 years of its existence (1960-1990) inflicting genocide and destructions against Somaliland people after raising grievances against injustice, oppression and persecution. Somaliland withdrew from that union after bloody war of liberation in 1991. Hence, how Somaliland, which was the initiator or host of the union accepted terms dictated or set by Somalia which was the guest or invitee to the union? If one side had to set terms to the other side, it would have been Somaliland because it initiated the birth of the failed union. This argument does not hold too.
Somaliland has fulfilled all the conditions necessary for Afrian colonies to be independent and recognized and it is unfair to be treated differently for 32 years. Somaliland cannot let Somalia abuse it with the independence it achieved before Somalia and with the failed union it created or initiated. Somaliland recognition is overdue. It is time to recognize Somaliland on its established colonial borders in order to become part of the International Community.
Author: Ibrahim Hassan Gagale [Somaliland Recognition Advocate].
December 31, 2023